Listed below are a number of resources that you might find useful

What is a Group Relations Conference?

Classic BART Article

Zachary Green, Ph.D.
Rene Molenkamp, Ph.D.

This article provides an introduction to a key system within Group Relations learning known as the BART System, which is an acronym standing for: Boundary, Authority, Role, Task.


Paradoxes of Group Life

David Berg
Kenwyn Smith

This diagnostic tool provides the reader with a visual into the contradiction, imbalance, and complexity of behavior in a group.  It is based on the book "Paradoxes of Group Life" by the same authors.


This letter was written to a potential new member of a group relations conference, and highlights what one may expect as a newcomer to this type of experience.


This article was written by an Associate of the Washington-Baltimore Center, and addresses his attendance and learning at the AKRI National Conference.  The author's learning and experience, however, may also suggest what is available to participants at other group relations conferences, residential, and non-residential.


Tavistock Primer II

Charla Hayden, PhD 
Rene Molenkamp, PhD

This article acts as a guidebook for what a conference conducted in the Tavistock tradition is all about.  It includes the history, the theoretical underpinnings, the modern adaptations, and more.

Selected Bibliography:

Bion, W. R. (1961). Experiences in groups. New York: Basic Books.

Colman, A. D. and Bexton, W. H. (1975). (Eds.) Group relations reader 1. Washington, DC: A. K. Rice Institute.

Colman, A. D. and Geller, M. H. (1985). (Eds.) Group relations reader 2. Washington, DC: A. K. Rice Institute.

Cytrynbaum, S and Noumair, D. A. (Eds.) Group relations reader 3.
Washington, DC: A. K. Rice Institute.

Wells, L. (1985). The group-as-a-whole perspective and its theoretical roots. In A. D. Colman and M. H. Geller (Eds.), Group relations reader 2. Washington, DC: A. K. Rice Institute.

Back, K. W. (1972). Beyond words: the story of sensitivity training and the encounter movement. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Banet, A. G. & Hayden, C. (1977). A Tavistock primer. In J.E. Jones & J.W. Pfeiffer (Eds.), The 1977 Annual Handbook for Group Facilitators (pp. 155-167).

Bion, W. R. (1970). Attention and interpretation. New York: Basic Books.

Cytrynbaum, S. & Lee, S. A. (1993). (Eds.) Transformations in global and organizational systems: Changing boundaries in the 90’s. Proceedings of the tenth scientific meeting of the A. K. Rice Institute. Jupiter, FL: the A. K. Rice Institute.

De Board, R. (1978). The psychoanalysis of organizations: A psychoanalytic approach to behaviors in groups and organizations. London: Routledge.

Gillette, J. and McCollom, M. (1995). (Eds.) Groups in context: A new perspective on groupdynamics. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Heifetz, R. (1994). Leadership without easy answers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Hirschorn, L. & Barnett, C.K. (1993). The psychodynamics of organizational life. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Hirschorn, L. (1988). The workplace within: Psychodynamics of organizational life. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hugg, T. W., Carson, N. M. & Lipgar, R. M. (1989). (Eds.) Changing group relations. The next twenty-five years in America. Proceedings of the ninth scientific meeting of the A. K. Rice Institute. Jupiter, FL: A. K. Rice Institute.

Klein, E. B. and Gould, L. J. (1973) Boundary issues and organizational dynamics: A new case study. Social Psychiatry, 8, 204-211.

Klein, E.B., & Astrachan, B.M. (1971). Learning in groups: A comparison of study groups and T-groups. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 7, 659-683.

Menninger, R. W. (1972). The impact of group relations conferences on organizational growth. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 22, 415-432.

Menzies Lyth, I. E. P. (1981). Bion’s contribution to thinking about groups. In J. S. Grotstein (Ed.), Do I dare to disturb the universe? Beverly Hills, CA: Caesura Press.

Miller, E. J. (1990). Experiential learning in groups. In E. Trist & H. Murray (Eds.), The social engagement of social science. London: Free Association Books

Miller, E. J. and Gwynne, G. V. (1972). A life apart. London: Tavistock Publications.

Miller, E. J. and Rice, A. K. (1967). Systems of organization. London: Tavistock Publications.

Newton, P. M. and Levinson, D. J. (1970). The work group within the organization: A socio-pyschological approach. Psychiatry, 36, 115-142.

O’Connor, C. (1971). The Tavistock method of group study. Science and Pscychoanalysis, 18, 100-115.

Obholzer, A. & Roberts, V. Z. (1994). (Eds.) The unconscious at work. Individual and organizational stress in the human services. London and New York: Routledge.

Redlich, F. C. and Astrachan, B. M. (1969). Group dynamics training. American Journal of Pyschiatry, 125, 1501-1507.

Rice, A. K. (1963). The enterprise and its environment. London: Tavistock Publications.

Rice, A. K. (1965). Learning for leadership: interpersonal and intergroup relations. London: Tavistock Publications.

Rice, A. K. (1969). Individual, group and intergroup processes. Human Relations, 22, 565-584.

Rice, A. K. (1970). The modern university. London: Tavistock Publications.

Rioch, M. J. (1970). The work of Wilfred R. Bion on Groups. Psychiatry, 33, 56-66.

Rioch, M. J. (1971). ‘All we like sheep-‘(Isaiah 53:6): Followers and leaders. Psychiatry, 34, 258-273

Rioch, M. J. (1970). Group relations: Rationale and techniques. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 20, 340-355.

Trist, E., & Murray, H. (Eds.) (1990). The social engagement of social science: A Tavistock anthology. The University of Pennsylvania Press.

Turquet, P. M. (1974). Leadership – the individual in the group. In G. S. Gibbard, J. J. Hartman & R. D. Mann (Eds.), Analysis of groups. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

West, K. L., Hayden, C. & Sharrin, R. M. (1995). (Eds.) Community/Chaos: Proceedings of the eleventh scientific meeting of the A. K. Rice Institute. Jupiter, FL: The A. K. Rice Institute.  |  New York, NY  |  An Affiliate of AKRI